Searching for: Optionals in C++
A switch case is used test variable equality for a list of values, where each value is a case. When the variable is equal to one of the cases, the statements following the case are executed. A break statement ends the switch case. The optional default case is for when the variable does not equal any of the cases.
The if else block controls decision making by checking true/false statements resulting in different executions of code, depending on if the result is true and if the result is false. There are three parts to the if-else block: if, else if, and else.