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Class Declaration & Structure
Classes are a blueprint for creating individual objects that contain the general characteristics of a defined object type. A modifier may or may not be used to declare a class.
First Class Functions
First class functions are used for declaring functions within functions, as well as passing functions as arguments. Functions that contain the declared or passed functions are called high order functions. Functions within another function are called low order functions.
Methods are functions declared within a class. There are three types: instance, class, and static. Instance methods have different implementation across all instances. They are called in relation to the current instance. Class methods have the same implementation across all instances. They are called in relation to the instance passed in. Static methods have the same implementation across all instances. They are not tied to a class instance.
Class and Instance Variables
Used declare variables within a class. There are two main types: class variables, which have the same value across all class instances (i.e. static variables), and instance variables, which have different values for each object instance.
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